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Server CPU internal structure

CPU, also known as a central processing unit, has always been the core of the computer field. Unlike the long-standing definition of CPU, modern CPUs integrate more and more components. The concept of CPU as we know it is called Core in modern CPU architecture, also known as computing core. The other components integrated into the CPU are called Uncore.

We use Haswell-E's Xeon processor as an example:
Before understanding the specific structure, let's explain some of the abbreviations:

  • Core

The computing core, which is the "CPU" we understood a long time ago

  • L3 Slice

The third level cache (Cache), the first and second levels are integrated in the Core

  • Two perfect circles

Internal high-speed bus (Ring), which can be understood as the Beijing ring subway line

  • Sbox

Can be understood as a subway transfer station, used to switch the itinerary

  • Square on the circle

(Ring Stop), can be understood as a subway station

  • Integrated I/O

The CPU can go directly out of the PCIe interface, while providing a DMI interface to the South Bridge

  • QPII Links

The external high-speed bus used to connect multiple CPUs. Can be understood as intercity high-speed rail

  • Home Agent

Another station on the subway line, only the memory controller is connected below

  • Memory Controller

Memory controller, used to control the memory

Note: Except for core, the rest are Uncore areas
Let's take an example to illustrate how the core reads a piece of data from memory.
12 cores are like 12 communities, and the memory is like a supermarket, which contains the food, daily necessities, etc. needed by the people in the community. For example, a resident of Community No. 1 wants to buy rice from the supermarket in the lower right corner, so he leaves the community to the nearest subway station to his community. Assuming that the subway line is two-way, he can travel north or south. It seems that there are more stations to the south, and it may be better to go north, suppose he chooses the subway to the north. So he will pass Integrated I/O, QPI station and arrive at the interchange station in the north. Through the interchange station, the resident transfers from Line 1 to Line 2. Similarly, there are more clockwise stations than fewer stations. Suppose he took the clockwise subway, and after a battle, he reached the Home Agent station in the lower right corner. After getting off the bus, you can walk to the supermarket. After buying rice, you can take the subway back home.


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